Title: Adaptive monitoring design for ecosystem management
Author: Ringold, Paul L.; Alegria, Jim; Czaplewski, Raymond L.; Mulder, Barry S.; Tolle, Tim; Burnett, Kelly
Source: Ecological Applications. 6: 745-747.
Description: Adaptive management of ecosystems (e.g., Holling 1978, Walters 1986, Everett et al. 1994, Grumbine 1994, Yaffee 1994, Gunderson et al. 1995, Frentz et al. 1995, Montgomery et al. 1995) structures a system in which monitoring iteratively improves the knowledge base and helps refine management plans. This adaptive approach acknowledges that action is necessary or appropriate with imperfect knowledge (Raiffa 1968, Walters 1986, Everett et al. 1994, USDA/FS and DOI/BLM 1994b) and that initial actions can be refined as more information becomes available. Imperfect knowledge is the case in ecosystem management particularly when the plan includes the management of complex ecological patterns and processes over large areas and long periods of time. In such cases, we suggest that an adaptive approach should apply not only to the management of the ecosystem, but also to the design of the monitoring program.
Keywords: adaptive monitoring, ecosystem management
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Ringold, Paul L.; Alegria, Jim; Czaplewski, Raymond L.; Mulder, Barry S.; Tolle, Tim; Burnett, Kelly. 1996. Adaptive monitoring design for ecosystem management. Ecological Applications. 6: 745-747.
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