Title: Assessing urban forest effects and values: Toronto's urban forest
Author: Nowak, David J.; Hoehn, Robert E. III; Bodine, Allison R.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Ellis, Alexis; Endreny, Theodore A.; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Tian; Henry, Ruthanne.
Source: Resour. Bull. NRS-79. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 59 p.
Station ID: RB-NRS-79
Description: An analysis of trees in Toronto, Ontario, reveals that this city has about 10.2 million trees with a tree and shrub canopy that covers approximately 26.6 percent of the city. The most common tree species are eastern white-cedar, sugar maple, and Norway maple. The urban forest currently stores an estimated 1.1 million metric tons of carbon valued at CAD$25.0 million. In addition, these trees remove about 46,700 metric tons of carbon per year (CAD$1.1 million per year) and about 1,905 metric tons of air pollution per year (CAD$16.9 million per year). Trees in Toronto are estimated to reduce annual residential energy costs by CAD$9.7 million per year. The compensatory value is estimated at CAD$7.1 billion. Information on the structure and functions of the urban forest can be used to improve and augment support for urban forest management programs and to integrate urban forests within plans to improve environmental quality in the Toronto area.
Keywords: urban forestry, ecosystem services, air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, tree value
View and Print this Publication (2.46 MB)
- We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
- This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
- This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
- Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, email@example.com if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility
Nowak, David J.; Hoehn, Robert E. III; Bodine, Allison R.; Greenfield, Eric J.; Ellis, Alexis; Endreny, Theodore A.; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Tian; Henry, Ruthanne. 2013. Assessing urban forest effects and values: Toronto's urban forest. Resour. Bull. NRS-79. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 59 p..