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Title: Influence of drying method on the material properties of nanocellulose I: thermostability and crystallinity
Author: Peng, Yucheng; Gardner, Douglas J.; Han, Yousoo; Kiziltas, Alper; Cai, Zhiyong; Tshabalala, Mandla A.
Source: Cellulose, 2013; 14 p.
Description: The effect of drying method on selected material properties of nanocellulose was investigated. Samples of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were each subjected to four separate drying methods: air-drying, freeze-drying, spray-drying, and supercritical-drying. The thermal stability and crystallinity of the dried nanocellulose were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. Supercritical-drying produced NFCs with the least thermal stability and the lowest crystallinity index. Air-drying or spray-drying produced NFCs which were more thermally stable compared with freeze-dried NFCs. The CNCs dried by the three methods (air-drying, freeze-drying, and spray-drying) have similar onset temperature of thermal degradation. The different drying methods resulted in various char weight percentages at 600 °C for the dried NFCs or CNCs from TGA measurements. The dried NFCs are pure cellulose I while the dried CNCs consist of cellulose I and II. The calculated crystallinity indices differ with each drying method. The cellulose II content in CNCs changes as a function of drying method. For the application of nanocellulose in non polar thermoplastics, spray-dried products are recommended according to their higher thermal stability and higher crystallinity index.
Keywords: nanofibrillated cellulose. cellulose nanocrystal, thermostability, crystallinity
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Peng, Yucheng; Gardner, Douglas J.; Han, Yousoo; Kiziltas, Alper; Cai, Zhiyong; Tshabalala, Mandla A. 2013. Influence of drying method on the material properties of nanocellulose I: thermostability and crystallinity. Cellulose. 20(5): 2379-2392.
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